Rubies

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A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone , a variety of the mineral corundum aluminium oxide. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires.

Ruby is one of the traditional cardinal gems , together with amethyst , sapphire , emerald , and diamond. The color of a ruby is due to the element chromium.

The quality of a ruby is determined by its color, cut, and clarity, which, along with carat weight, affect its value. The brightest and most valuable shade of red called blood-red or pigeon blood, commands a large premium over other rubies of similar quality.

After color follows clarity: Ruby is the traditional birthstone for July and is usually pinker than garnet , although some rhodolite garnets have a similar pinkish hue to most rubies.

Rubies have a hardness of 9. Among the natural gems only moissanite and diamond are harder, with diamond having a Mohs hardness of If one percent of the aluminum ions are replaced by chromium in ruby, the yellow-green absorption results in a red color for the gem.

After absorbing short-wavelength light, there is a short interval of time when the crystal lattice of ruby is in an excited state before fluorescence occurs.

If nanometer photons pass through the crystal during that time, they can stimulate more fluorescent photons to be emitted in-phase with them, thus strengthening the intensity of that red light.

By arranging mirrors or other means to pass emitted light repeatedly through the crystal, a ruby laser in this way produces a very high intensity of coherent red light.

All natural rubies have imperfections in them, including color impurities and inclusions of rutile needles known as "silk".

Gemologists use these needle inclusions found in natural rubies to distinguish them from synthetics, simulants, or substitutes.

Usually, the rough stone is heated before cutting. These days, almost all rubies are treated in some form, with heat treatment being the most common practice.

Untreated rubies of high quality command a large premium. Some rubies show a three-point or six-point asterism or "star".

These rubies are cut into cabochons to display the effect properly. Asterisms are best visible with a single-light source and move across the stone as the light moves or the stone is rotated.

Such effects occur when light is reflected off the "silk" the structurally oriented rutile needle inclusions in a certain way. This is one example where inclusions increase the value of a gemstone.

Generally, gemstone-quality corundum in all shades of red, including pink, are called rubies. Often, the distinction between ruby and pink sapphire is not clear and can be debated.

That region has produced some exceptional rubies, however in recent years few good rubies have been found. The most recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar is in Namya Namyazeik located in the northern state of Kachin.

The Republic of Macedonia is the only country in mainland Europe to have naturally occurring rubies. They can mainly be found around the city of Prilep.

Macedonian rubies have a unique raspberry color. The ruby is also included on the Macedonian coat of arms. Spinel , another red gemstone, is sometimes found along with rubies in the same gem gravel or marble.

Red spinels may be mistaken for rubies by those lacking experience with gems. However, the finest red spinels can have values approaching that of an average ruby.

Rubies, as with other gemstones, are graded using criteria known as the four Cs, namely color, cut, clarity and carat weight. Rubies are also evaluated on the basis of their geographic origin.

In the evaluation of colored gemstones, color is the most important factor. Color divides into three components: Hue refers to color as we normally use the term.

Transparent gemstones occur in the pure spectral hues of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet. Ruby is defined to be red.

All other hues of the gem species corundum are called sapphire. Ruby may exhibit a range of secondary hues, including orange, purple, violet, and pink.

Improving the quality of gemstones by treating them is common practice. Some treatments are used in almost all cases and are therefore considered acceptable.

During the late s, a large supply of low-cost materials caused a sudden surge in supply of heat-treated rubies, leading to a downward pressure on ruby prices.

Improvements used include color alteration, improving transparency by dissolving rutile inclusions, healing of fractures cracks or even completely filling them.

The most common treatment is the application of heat. Most rubies at the lower end of the market are heat treated to improve color, remove purple tinge , blue patches, and silk.

The silk is partially broken, and the color is improved. Another treatment, which has become more frequent in recent years, is lead glass filling.

Filling the fractures inside the ruby with lead glass or a similar material dramatically improves the transparency of the stone, making previously unsuitable rubies fit for applications in jewelry.

If a color needs to be added, the glass powder can be "enhanced" with copper or other metal oxides as well as elements such as sodium, calcium, potassium etc.

The second heating process can be repeated three to four times, even applying different mixtures. The treatment can identified by noting bubbles in cavities and fractures using a 10x loupe.

In , Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing potash alum at a high temperature with a little chromium as a pigment.

In , Ebelmen made white sapphire by fusing alumina in boric acid. In , Frenic and Freil made crystal corundum from which small stones could be cut.

Frimy and Auguste Verneuil manufactured artificial ruby by fusing BaF 2 and Al 2 O 3 with a little chromium at red heat.

In , Verneuil announced he could produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process. Most synthetic rubies originate from flame fusion, due to the low costs involved.

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Synthetic rubies may have no imperfections visible to the naked eye but magnification may reveal curves, striae and gas bubbles.

The fewer the number and the less obvious the imperfections, the more valuable the ruby is; unless there are no imperfections i.

Dopants are added to some manufactured rubies so they can be identified as synthetic, but most need gemological testing to determine their origin.

Synthetic rubies have technological uses as well as gemological ones. Rods of synthetic ruby are used to make ruby lasers and masers.

The first working laser was made by Theodore H. Ruby lasers are still in use. Rubies are also used in applications where high hardness is required such as at wear exposed locations in modern mechanical clockworks, or as scanning probe tips in a coordinate measuring machine.

Imitation rubies are also marketed. Red spinels , red garnets , and colored glass have been falsely claimed to be rubies. Imitations go back to Roman times and already in the 17th century techniques were developed to color foil red—by burning scarlet wool in the bottom part of the furnace—which was then placed under the imitation stone.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the mineral or gem. For other uses, see Ruby disambiguation.

Natural ruby crystals from Winza , Tanzania. Artificial ruby under a normal light top and under a green laser light bottom.

Red light is emitted. Gemology and Jewelry portal. Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved March 28, Archived from the original on May 2, Archived from the original on January 2, Archived from the original on April 26, Archived from the original on January 13, Archived from the original on January 31, Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved December 23, Archived from the original on March 30, Retrieved March 30, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft in German.

Gemological Institute of America. Archived from the original on June 14, Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved August 19, A Lapidary or History of Gemstones".

Archived from the original on August 19, Archived from the original on March 9, Retrieved February 28, Archived from the original on July 29, Retrieved November 8, Archived from the original on December 29, Rubies are the most valuable members of the corundum family.

Large gem-quality rubies can be more valuable than comparably sized diamonds and are certainly rarer. There is a relative abundance of smaller, carat blue sapphires compared to the scarcity of even small gem-quality rubies.

As a result, even these smaller stones are relatively high in value. Prices are dependent on origin, color, size, and clarity: High-value ruby rough is tightly controlled and rarely makes its way to custom cutters.

Occasionally, such native stones are recut to custom proportions, albeit at a loss of weight and diameter. Custom cut and recut stones are usually more per carat.

Ruby is red corundum. The color comes from traces of chromium. All other color varieties of corundum are referred to as sapphire.

Depending on the chromium and iron content, rubies have a color range that includes pinkish, purplish, orangey, and brownish reds.

The trace mineral content tends to vary with the location of the geologic formation which produced the ruby. However, color is not always an indication of origin.

There is an old joke about questionable stones: Most authorities expect a medium to medium dark-red color tone in a ruby. Stones lighter than this are called pink sapphire.

However, there is no general agreement on how to draw the line between rubies and sapphires. Few other gems have as much myth, lore, and romance surrounding them as rubies.

One of their chief attractions is the alleged protection from misfortune and bad health they were believed to afford their lucky owners.

While high-quality ruby is usually faceted for jewelry, ruby rough of lower quality is used in great quantities to make beads, carvings, and other ornamental objects.

Stones from Myanmar formerly Burma tend to have purplish red colors. Thai stones tend to appear more brownish red.

Rubies fluoresce in long or short wave ultraviolet light. Myanmar rubies often fluoresce so strongly that the effect is noticeable even in sunlight.

They literally seem to glow and are greatly admired. Thai stones generally lack this property. If this rutile is sufficiently abundant and precisely arranged, proper cabochon cutting can create star rubies.

Today there are heating and diffusion processes that can increase the rutile content and improve such gems. Inclusions can also help identify the source of a ruby.

See our article on identifying the origins of rubies and sapphires for more information. Corundum gemstones, both rubies and sapphires, were first synthesized in the early s by a simple flame fusion process.

More complex synthesis processes have been developed in recent years. These simulate natural formation conditions so closely that colors and even inclusions look extremely natural.

Such stones are difficult for all but the most highly skilled professionals to identify as synthetic. Rubies have a long history of enhancement. Unless the seller specifically states the stone is unheated, you should assume that some kind of heat treatment has been used.

Usually high temperature heating and controlled cooling is done to clarify the stones. This process dissolves silk rutile inclusions and can also improve tone and saturation of color.

Such treatments can only be detected in stones whose residual inclusions show signs of heat stress. Truly clean stones will give no clues and cannot be verified as natural color.

For more information on ruby enhancements, see Corundum Treatments. Paars Tinky Winky kostuum van de Teletubies met hoofddeksel… Meer.

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